Volume 177 , 1 August 2017, Pages 268-276 Reward-related frontostriatal activity and smoking behavior among adolescents in treatment for smoking cessation Author links open overlay panel Kathleen A.Garrisona One of the first longitudinal fMRI studies of smoking cessation treatment in adolescents. Adolescents show increased non-drug reward-related brain activity pre- to post-treatment. Increases in reward-related brain activity were associated with smoking abstinence. Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n = 14). This study tested how changes in neural responses to reward anticipation pre- to post-treatment were related to reduced smoking. An exploratory analysis in a larger sample of adolescents with only pre-treatment fMRI (n = 28) evaluated how neural responses to reward anticipation were related to behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales. Adolescent smokers showed pre- to post-treatment increases in reward anticipation-related activity in the bilateral nucleus accumbens and insula, and medial prefrontal cortex, and greater increases in reward anticipation-related activity were correlated with larger percent days of smoking abstinence during treatment.
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Barber said the desire for the ban was driven by aesthetics as well as health. "We have fishing areas and scenic trails that we want to keep free of cigarette litter," he said. Vaping advocates argue that e-cigarettes are not combustible, so second-hand smoke does not pose a health threat. Barber told the Times Union the ban was focused on protecting children from second-hand smoke as well as the temptation to smoke themselves. And he disagrees that e-cigarettes are harmless to the non-users who are in the vicinity of vaping. "Children watch and observe, and vaping might look like something they would want to do someday," Barber says. "And the aerosol from electronic cigarettes can contain nicotine and other carcinogens that can be inhaled by people sharing the park. E-cigarettes are just not consistent with a family-friendly park." The new law imposes a $50 fine for the first violation, while repeat offenders could find themselves paying $200-$500. "We don't need the revenue from the fines," Barber said, adding that he was confident locals would comply with the ban.