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study alleges cigarette makers promote "smoke without smoking" Source: Xinhua| 2017-08-19 15:34:09|Editor: Song Lifang SAN FRANCISCO, Aug. 18 (Xinhua) -- Tobacco companies have known for decades that without counseling "nicotine replacement therapy" or NTR, used by consumers to complement smoking, hardly helps smokers quit, according to a study out of the United States. What's more, American cigarette makers embraced NTR as a business opportunity. Combined with counseling, nicotine patches, gum, lozenges, inhalers or nasal sprays - together known as NRT - came into play in 1984 as prescription medicine. In 1996, at the urging of pharmaceutical companies, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allowed those products to be sold over-the-counter. The tobacco industry once viewed nicotine patches and gum as a threat to their cigarette sales. However, with formerly secret internal documents known as the "Tobacco Papers," dated between 1960 and 2010 from the seven major tobacco companies operating in the United States, researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, revealed that cigarette makers had started investing in alternative forms of nicotine delivery as early as the 1950s, but stopped short because people largely regarded nicotine as harmful, and such products might have attracted the attention of FDA regulators. Published this week in the American Journal of Public Health (AJPH), the study titled "Tobacco Industry Research on Nicotine Replacement Therapy: 'If Anyone Is Going to Take Away Our Business It Should Be Us'" found that in 1987, three years after FDA first approved nicotine gum as a quitting aid, the tide had turned on the public perception of nicotine; and that by 1992, the tobacco industry had determined that patches and gum by themselves do not help smokers quit. For more than a decade, the companies did not act on this knowledge out of fear of FDA regulation. But once the federal agency started regulating cigarettes in 2009, they went all out in their bid to develop and sell NRT.
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Volume 177 , 1 August 2017, Pages 268-276 Reward-related frontostriatal activity and smoking behavior among adolescents in treatment for smoking cessation Author links open overlay panel Kathleen A.Garrisona One of the first longitudinal fMRI studies of smoking cessation treatment in adolescents. Adolescents show increased non-drug reward-related brain activity pre- to post-treatment. Increases in reward-related brain activity were associated with smoking abstinence. Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n = 14). This study tested how changes in neural responses to reward anticipation pre- to post-treatment were related to reduced smoking. An exploratory analysis in a larger sample of adolescents with only pre-treatment fMRI (n = 28) evaluated how neural responses to reward anticipation were related to behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales. Adolescent smokers showed pre- to post-treatment increases in reward anticipation-related activity in the bilateral nucleus accumbens and insula, and medial prefrontal cortex, and greater increases in reward anticipation-related activity were correlated with larger percent days of smoking abstinence during treatment.
The cigarette industry holds the second place in terms of total excise collection, which contributes significantly to indirect tax ( 22.9% of the 2017 Federal Governmental budget). Additionally, the government has failed to control its illegal cigarette trade. The responsibility of clamping down on illicit cigarette trade falls on the shoulders of Royal Malaysian Customs Department (RMC). RMC failed to meet its aim of cutting illegal cigarette consumption to 25% by 2015 . This year, Subromaniam said , “The department aims to reduce the number of contraband cigarettes in the domestic market by 50 per cent in two years, but we are confident we can do better.” This confidence came with a call for harsher policy changes. Instead of fines up to 20 times the value of the contraband cigarettes or a maximum of three years jail term or both , the Customs Department has proposed a change to Section 135 (1) (d) of the Customs Act 1967. The proposed amendment would enforce an increase in minimum cigarette or liquor fine to RM100,000 (US$24,000). As the government stays focused on policy writing, the nation will have to suffer the repercussions for a longer time. Malaysia has set out big dreams for a smoke-free nation by 2045 and a reduction in smoking prevalence to 15% by the year 2025. This approved plan has tied in nicely with WHO’s FCTC, for which Malaysia is a long-term signatory. However, the nation is still far from its goal.